* 1905 Development of the modern technique for human blood transfusion using a cannula to connect blood vessels by surgeon George Crile
* 1912 Pioneering the process of chlorinating drinking water by Professor Roger Perkins
* 1915 First simulated milk formula for infants, by alumnus and pediatrics professor Henry Gerstenberger
* 1927 Discovery of the cause of ptomaine food poisoning and development of an antiserum by immunologist Enrique Ecker and colleagues
* 1935 First surgical treatment of coronary artery disease by Professor Claude Beck
* 1950s Development of the first heart-lung machine for use in open heart surgeries by Professor Frederick Cross
* 1961 First successful genetic alteration of human cells in a test tube by Professor Austin Weisburger
* 1969 William Insull, M.D., describes the role of cholesterol in blood vessel disease
* 1975 Discovery that human rennin, an enzyme produced by the kidney, is involved in hypertension
* 1990 Discovery of the gene for osteoarthritis by a national team led by rheumatologist Roland Moskowitz
* 1991 First triple organ transplant in Ohio-a kidney, liver and pancreas-by James A. Schulak, M.D., and colleagues
* 1997 Creation of the world’s first artificial human chromosome by a team led by Professor Huntington Willard
Additional medical firsts include:
* First large-scale medical research project on humans in a study linking iodine with goiter prevention
* Discovery of early treatment of strep throat infections to prevent rheumatic fever
* Discovery of the Hageman factor in blood clotting, a major discovery in blood coagulation research
* First description of how staphylococcus infections were transmitted, leading to required hand-washing between patients in infant nurseries
* First description of what was later named Reye’s syndrome
* Research leading to FDA approval of clozapine, the most advanced treatment for schizophrenia at the time
* In 1843, five faculty members and sixty-seven students began the first medical lectures at the Medical Department of Western Reserve College (also known as the Cleveland Medical College).
* In 1852, the medical school became the second allopathic medical school to graduate a woman, Nancy Talbot Clarke.
* Six of the first seven women in the United States to receive medical degrees from recognized allopathic medical schools graduated from Western Reserve University (as it was called then) between 1850 and 1856.
* The School of Medicine was one of the first in the country to employ instructors devoted to full-time teaching and research.
* In 1896, the first affiliation agreement was approved between Western Reserve University and University Hospitals of Cleveland (Lakeside Hospital).
* The Western Reserve University School of Medicine revolutionized medical education in 1952 with the most progressive curriculum in the country which integrated the basic and clinical sciences.
* In 2002, the School of Medicine became only the third medical school in history to receive the best review possible from the Liaison Committee on National Education, the national body responsible for accrediting the medical schools.
* In 2006, the School of Medicine’s University Program instituted a new integrated curriculum of medicine and public health awareness, which emphasizes the both the biology of disease and social and behavioral context of illness.
* More than 5,700 applications were received by the School of Medicine for the 2008-2009 year.
* For the 2007-2008 year, the School of Medicine had 1,475 full-time and part-time students with 698 in M.D. degree programs and 777 in M.S./Ph.D. programs.
* Of approximately 140 graduates each year, 96 percent pass Step 1 and 97 percent pass Step 2 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination.
Faculty and Research
* The School of Medicine has more than 3,800 faculty members.
* There are 620 full-time faculty members working on National Institute of Health research grants and 595 NIH-funded studies.
* The total NIH annual research funds granted to the School of Medicine in 2008 was $243,512,609.
Programs and Departments
* The School of Medicine offers 25 graduate degree options, including M.D., dual M.D./Ph.D. degrees and combined M.S./Ph.D. programs.
* The School of Medicine has 54 academic departments and 28 research centers and institutes.
* The School of Medicine is ranked as one of the nation’s top 20 medical schools by U.S. News & World Report’s Guide to Graduate Education. Additionally, the Departments of Family Medicine and Pediatrics are ranked 13th in the country.
* The largest medical research institution in Ohio, the School of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University was ranked 15th highest in research funding by the National Institutes of Health in 2007.
* During 2007, the economic impact of the School of Medicine and its affiliates on the State of Ohio equaled $5.82 billion and accounted for more than 65,000 Ohio jobs.
For patients outside the highest and lowest traditional risk factor categories, based on factors like high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and family history of heart disease, MRP-8/14 could become a prominent diagnostic tool. “We are attempting to determine whether the use of MRP-8/14 should sway us toward more aggressive preventive therapies,” says Carl Orringer, MD, the Harrington Heart & Vascular Institute Chair in Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine at the School of Medicine.
Currently, a “high-sensitivity C-reactive protein” (hs-CRP) assay is sometimes used in conjunction with cholesterol tests to assess heart disease risk. Like hs-CRP, MRP-8/14 represents a different biological process than cholesterol and is likely to serve as a complement to, not a substitute for, cholesterol screening. Of cholesterol testing’s shortcomings, Dr. Orringer says, “Relying on cholesterol alone is ignoring the inflammation that lights the fuse that sets off the explosion that is the heart ttack.”
Dr. Orringer, who developed an innovative heart attack risk assessment program that uses CT scans to see whether a person has hardening of the arteries, believes that MRP-8/14 may come to be incorporated to aid in risk estimation.
“A person’s heart attack risk is related to how much calcium is in the arteries—the more calcium, the greater the risk,” Dr. Orringer explains. “Those with calcium in their arteries indicating atherosclerosis might be really good candidates for MRP-8/14 evaluation to see who is at the highest risk.”
University Hospitals named one of the Top 10 Health Systems in U.S.
For the second consecutive year, University Hospitals (UH) has been named one of the top 10 health systems in the United States based on clinical performance by Thomson Reuters, a leading business and professional information organization.
UH and the other top 10 systems outperformed their peers by a wide margin. They provided better care, followed standards of care more closely, saved more lives, had fewer patient complications, and made fewer patient safety errors.
The list was compiled in a study conducted by researchers from the Thomson Reuters 100 Top Hospitals®. They analyzed the quality and efficiency of 255 health systems based on eight metrics that gauge clinical quality and efficiency: mortality, medical complications, patient safety, average length of stay, 30-day mortality rate, 30-day readmission rate, adherence to clinical standards of care (evidence-based core measures published by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services), and HCAHPS patient survey score (part of a national initiative sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to measure the quality of care in hospitals).
Thomson Reuters rankings are available at www.thomsonreuters.com.